thematic analysis braun and clarke

Thematic Analysis in HCI. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. Thematic Analysis We (Virginia Braun & Victoria Clarke) have developed an extensive reading list, organised into sections, to help guide you through the diversity of approaches and practices around thematic analysis. New to qualitative methods, I analyzed a sample of qualitative papers published at CHI that year. Braun and Clarke argue this concept is more adequate for Grounded Theory approaches or other versions of thematic analysis. One of the advantages of (our reflexive version of) TA is that it’s theoretically-flexible. Qualitative analysis either referenced Grounded Theory by Charmaz, thematic analysis by Braun and Clarke (B&C), or simply stated using open coding. The findings highlighted the processes whereby forgiveness is achieved, A total of six themes were identified: forgiveness perspectives, resentments and anger, safety, motivations, mediators, and resilience/personal growth. Easily import data from text documents, interview transcripts, focus groups, online surveys, web pages, images, audio and video files, spreadsheets, bibliographic data, YouTube data, and even tweets. B&C suggest deductive and latent approaches often are tied to a constructionist approach (source). Unfortunately, there are no magic formulas for determining sample size in TA research! It’s theoretically flexible: it can be guided by concepts from a variety of fields, as well as being used in a variety of research approaches (inductive, deductive, semantic…). Let’s say you’re studying women’s negative perceptions of technology for mobility. Feedback on this page, Māori and Pacific Psychology Research Group, The New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, The Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes Study, Different orientations in thematic analysis, Phases in doing reflexive thematic analysis, Evaluating and reviewing (reflexive) thematic analysis research | a checklist for editors and reviewers, Answers to frequently asked questions about thematic analysis (April 2019), Reading list and resources for thematic analysis, Guidelines for reviewers and editors evaluating thematic analysis manuscripts (April 2019). Braun and Clarke point to Boyatzis (1998) as a good example of this approach. eCollection 2014. See also Grounded Theory approaches below. It might also mix these approaches, hence the coding. This is intended as a starting- rather than end-point! Initial themes might be mapped and linked to tell a story about the data, what Braun and Clarke call the central meaning-based concept, the story about the data. PLEASE NOTE PART 3 IS NOT YET AVAILABLE & IT IS LIKELY TO BE SOME TIME BEFORE IT IS. That type of analysis doesn’t tell a thematic story. 1701: 2013: Thematic analysis . Revised on August 14, 2020. Patterns are identified through a rigorous process of data familiarisation, data coding, and theme development and revision. | It provides an easily interpretable and concise description of the emergent themes and patterns within a dataset, usually as the foundational phase of interpretation. This chapter introduces thematic analysis (TA), a method that has become a widely-used tool for analysing qualitative data, both in psychology and beyond. So for instance in HCI, reflexive thematic analysis could be applied to understand how a marginalised population perceive wearable health technologies and how this may reflect larger health inequalities, but not to simply summarize what they said about a prototype of a wearable health technology (e.g., that it was easy to use and how they would use it). Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis. In terms of research approach, B&C’s approach is agnostic: they list possible approaches as inductive/deductive, semantic/latent, and critical realist/constructionist or a mix of those. These are not rules to follow rigidly, but rather a series of conceptual and practice oriented ‘tools’ that guides the analysis to facilitate a rigorous process of data interrogation and engagement. 2016;19(6):739–43. Int J Soc Res Methodol. The theoretical approach of the analysis was taken from Braun and Clarke and inspired by their ‘six-phase guide’. Braun and Clarke (2006) state that thematic analysis is a foundational method of analysis that needed to be defined and described to solidify its place in qualitative research. It is one of a cluster of methods that focus on identifying patterned meaning across a dataset. Teaching thematic analysis: Overcoming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning. Thematic analysis is a widely used method of analysis in qualitative research. The data suitable for this type of inquiry and research approach is qualitative. A common pitfall in (reflexive TA) theme development is identifying a feature of the data, rather than meaning-based patterns. This six phase cyclical process involves going back and forth between phases of data analysis as needed until you are satisfied with the final themes. It can be done at a semantic or latent level. However, analysis should be considered recursive – in other words moving back and forth between each phase. The coding process inherits from the approach. We now call this approach reflexive thematic analysis to distinguish it from other approaches to TA. The approach to TA that Braun & Clarke have developed [2] involves a six-phase process for doing analysis. https://sociodesign.hypotheses.org/555, both researchers and reviewers on their website, Braun and Clarke identify three main approaches, General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data. Braun and Clarke (2006) state that thematic analysis is a foundational method of analysis that needed to be defined and described to solidify its place in qualitative research. Thematic analysis: A practical guide. Phase Process Result Reflexivity Journal Entries; Phase 1 : Read and re-read data in order to become familiar with what the data entails, paying specific attention to patterns that occur. Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data.It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts.The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. During CHI reviewing this year, Samantha and I noticed many references to thematic analysis used language and concepts Braun and Clarke have often disavowed. There are so many publications on TA these days! We've developed this site to provide a key resource for people are interested in learning about, teaching about, and/or doing, TA – especially the approach we’ve developed: reflexive thematic analysis. To cite: Brulé, E., Finnigan, S. 2020. Interaction analysis focuses on how participants develop knowledge or act using both social and material features of their environment — multimodal analysis emphasizes the importance of considering all different aspects and modes of communication (visual, embodied, speech…). What can "thematic analysis" offer health and wellbeing researchers? Please feel free to download our extensive list of frequently asked questions that quite comprehensively address many of the queries people have about what TA is, how TA fits in relation to other approaches, and various ‘doing TA’ related questions. From our perspective, the use of a structured codebook, determining themes in advance of analysis or following only data familiarization (using themes as analytic inputs) and conceptualizing themes as domain summaries, delimits the depth of engagement and flexibility central to qualitative research practice. Learning to do it provides the qualitative researcher with a foundation in the basic skills needed to engage with other approaches to qualitative data analysis. V Clarke, V Braun, N Hayfield. More generally, it constitutes a cornerstone of qualitative data analysis. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, ... Braun, Virginia and Clarke, Victoria (2006) Using thematic analy-sis in psychology. This is closer to quantitative approaches, in that it attempts to eliminate researchers’ biases and emphasizes replicability as a main indicator of quality. These pages focus on defining our approach to TA and addressing queries about TA according to the way we have conceptualised it. Qualitative Research in Psyc hology, 3 (2). | TA is best thought of as an umbrella term for a set of approaches for analysing qualitative data that share a focus on identifying themes (patterns of meaning) in qualitative data. Google Scholar Learning to do it provides the qualitative researcher with a foundation in the basic skills needed to engage with other approaches to qualitative data analysis. For instance, maybe the inquiry about mobility technology is grounded in critical disability studies and urban theory; maybe it’s rooted in pragmatic urban sociology. Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2020). Introduction. We distinguish between three main types of TA – our reflexive approach, coding reliability TA and codebook approaches, which include methods like template analysis and framework analysis. What can "thematic analysis" offer health and wellbeing researchers? thematic analysis (TA) shows that there is a lack of descriptions issues exist due respect to the concepts, process, ... Braun and Clarke (2006) argue that Grounded Theory is very similar to Thematic Analysis in terms their procedures for coding ‘themes’ or coding from data (pp. It does not pretend to be neutral: all analysis is influenced by the researcher or researchers. Transition: As Braun and Clarke (2006) have argued, thematic analysis can be conducted within both realist/essentialist and constructionist paradigms, although the outcome and focus will be different from each. Although the title of this paper suggests TA is for, or about, psychology, that’s not the case! These guidelines expand and clarify the points we initially made in our 15 point checklist for quality (reflexive) TA, and are useful beyond the editing/reviewing context. That said, an inductive research about representations about mobility technology could reveal a pattern of gendered experiences, with women having more negative experiences than men. A paper isn’t the final answer to a question. However, analysis should be considered recursive – in other words moving back and forth between each phase. While Braun and Clarke (2006) argue extensively how thematic analysis should be conducted, little information is given on data saturation. The example in this article is a simplified version of thematic analysis designed to help understand how the process works. The method has been widely used across the social, behavioural and more applied (clinical, health, education, etc.) We’ve included more resources at the end of this article. Semantic/latent: The analysis just look at what people say (semantic), or try reporting on the assumptions underpinning the data, i.e. Reflexive thematic analysis is an approach to analysing qualitative data to answer broad or narrow research questions about people’s experiences, views and perceptions, and representations of a given phenomena. This approach is well suited for describing and summarizing qualitative data, and participants’ views on a topic or technology. These past few years, their 2006 paper took off, reaching 71 739 citations according to Google Scholar at the time we write this article. What is vitally important is that your analysis is theoretically coherent and consistent. Reflexive thematic analysis starts with research questions or thematic and an approach to investigate that topic. Preliminary "start" codes and detailed notes. Before we continue, let’s just note this article will not get into the matter of Grounded Theory and how to do it. These phases should be considered to be undertaken sequentially with each phase building on the one before. 2016;19(6):739–43. They should rather be used in relation to the research question and the available data. Find out more about us. 1544: 2015: What can “thematic analysis” offer health and wellbeing researchers? Reflexive thematic analysis is an approach to analysing qualitative … Despite these similarities, differences exist. We now call our approach reflexive TA as it differs from most other approaches to TA in terms of both underlying philosophy and procedures for theme development. Themes are conceptualized based on the data, based on the research question — which may evolve and lead to start a new analysis process. For instance, related to health technology, an initial theme would be community-specific forms of humor to talk about inequalities and health technologies, but not that people used humor to talk about the topic during the interview, which is a pattern in the data. We first outline the history and context of TA, and identify key issues that need to be considered when conducting TA. A challenge in keeping up with evolving uses of thematic analysis is that it was designed to be versatile, to adapt to different theoretical and epistemological frameworks, and adapt to many research questions. We've developed this site to provide a key resource for people are interested in learning about, teaching about, and/or doing, TA – especially the approach we’ve developed: reflexive thematic analysis. What themes are not, in the words of B&C: The most common problem we see is topic summaries being treated as themes–a student once memorably called these ‘bucket themes’ because they’re effectively a ‘topic dump’. After reading far too many manuscripts which either mash-up different versions of TA, or say they followed ‘Braun & Clarke’ and then do something completely at odds with what we’ve recommended, we developed some detailed guidelines intended for editors and reviewers who receive manuscripts that use ‘thematic analysis’. The course will introduce the principles and practice of reflexive thematic analysis (TA), as described by Virginia Braun, Victoria Clarke, and their colleagues. Thematic analysis is one of the most fundamental frameworks of analysis on qualitative data. Thematic Analysis (TA) is an accessible, flexible, and increasingly popular method of qualitative data analysis. Gareth Terry Nikki Hayfield Victoria Clarke Virginia Braun. | Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. Thematic analysis Victoria Clarke Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK Correspondence [email protected] & Virginia Braun School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand I have written chapters / journal papers about insider/outsider research and story completion tasks. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. Logistic regression was performed to detect predictors of outcome variables, such as not smoking at follow-up. Although these phases are sequential, and each builds on the previous, analysis is typically a recursive process, with movement back and forth between different phases. Use MAXQDA to manage your entire research project. The Lifecycle to Build a Web App for Prediction from Scratch, Play With Your ML Dataset — Cheatsheet in R, Ten Ways Cognitive Biases Impact Data Design Work. PLEASE NOTE PART 3 IS NOT YET AVAILABLE & IT IS LIKELY TO BE SOME TIME BEFORE IT IS. Briefly, thematic analysis (TA) is a popular method for analysing qualitative data in many disciplines and fields, and can be applied in lots of different ways, to lots of different datasets, to address lots of different research questions! The term thematic DA is used to refer to a wide range of pattern-type analysis of data, ranging from thematic analysis within a social constructionist epistemology (ie, where patterns are identified as socially produced, but no discursive analyse is conducted), to forms of analysis very much akin to the interpretative repertoire form of DA (Clarke, 2005). The purpose of TA is to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset that provide an answer to the research question being addressed. We hope you find this information a rich and useful resource to facilitate your TA learning and practice, as unfortunately, we simply don’t have time to answer in person the many, many queries we get. Thematic analysis is used in many different research fields, but the steps are always the same, and here we build our detailed description of the steps on a famous article, by qualitative researchers in psychology Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke, called “Using thematic analysis in psychology”. Written with the help of Samantha Finnigan! Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. The approach to TA that Braun & Clarke have developed [2] involves a six-phase process for doing analysis. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. In reflexive thematic analysis, more often only an excerpt of the coding and the description of the coding process provided (source). The conceptual framework of the thematic analysis for my interviews was mainly built upon the theoretical positions of Braun and Clarke (2006). All-in-One Thematic Analysis Software. Using SPSS for Windows, Release 6.1.3, standard frequency analysis for each variable was calculated for descriptive information. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods, 222-248, 2015. In the terms of Braun & Clarke's scheme, our example fits with an inductive and semantic approach (because we let the data determine our themes, and we focus on the direct content of what is said). This analysis is adapted to ‘Understanding Users’ type of studies with research questions that don’t focus on representations, since this type of questions is a core focus of the Reflexive TA approach. For some, we provide a succinct summary of what they offer. pp. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. Additional Information : This is an electronic version of an article published in "Braun, Virginia and Clarke, Victoria (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. It is generally unrealistic to conduct interviews with a whole population and therefore the issue of what is a suitable and sufficient … We’ve also kept up with discussions on thematic analysis in psychology and social sciences. Finally, Thomas’ General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data is also sometimes used. The final story relates to the research question: maybe the overall theme for the paper is the community’s role in individual’s perceptions and choices of wearable health technologies. Here we draw on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) framework and apply it in a systematic manner to describe and explain the process of analysis within the context of learning and teaching research. Thematic analysis is often the go-to method in most qualitative research. We think thematic analysis (TA) offers a useful – and a relatively easy to teach and learn – basic introduction to qualitative analysis (see Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012, 2013; Clarke & Braun, 2013); yet even teaching a fairly accessible approach like TA presents challenges in the classroom. We have written extensively about our approach since then, and our thinking has developed in various ways, so do check out some of our more recent writing. Braun and Clarke do provide rules of thumb regarding the number of interviews or research data in their guide for beginners — minimum four or five dense interviews for a paper. Reflexive thematic analysis is not theory-agnostic. What’s the difference between reflexive thematic analysis (e.g., ‘Braun & Clarke’) and other approaches? You can download a PDF of these guidelines – and we encourage you to share with editors, reviewers, and others who might find them useful. In this chapter, we first outline the basics of what TA is and explain why it is so useful. This issue is relevant when researchers are interested in examining common views held by a certain group of people. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We have developed a widely-cited approach to TA that is theoretically flexible, characterised by its foregrounding of researcher subjectivity. We think thematic analysis (TA) offers a useful – and a relatively easy to teach and learn – basic introduction to qualitative analysis (see Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012, 2013; Clarke & Braun, 2013); yet even teaching a fairly accessible approach like TA presents challenges in the classroom. It does not measure (inter)reliability. Using thematic analysis in psychology Virginia Braun 1 and Victoria Clarke 2 1 University of Auckland and 2 University of the West of England Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Disclaimer Accessibility Useful to HCI could be this paper on GT for literature reviews, and the proposal to use flexible coding for analysing interviews or observations. There’s a topic in the data, and the theme becomes everything participants said about it. Topic summary themes cluster around experiences of X, benefits of Y, barriers to Z, and so on. In our reflexive TA approach, you need to think about which approaches suit your project, and actively decide on the ‘version’ of reflexive TA you do. We initially outlined our approach in a 2006 paper, Using thematic analysis in psychology. With more experience (and smaller datasets), the analytic process can blur some of these phases together. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101. Many thanks to Ignacio Avellino and Tom Giraud for their comments and edits. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. This means it can be used within different frameworks, to answer quite different types of research question. Virginia Braun, Victoria Clarke, One size fits all? Collaboration in coding in reflexive TA is not focused on inter-reliability — but rather on how different perspectives on the same data helps reflect on codes and develop themes. • The definitive guide to our approach! Deductive/Inductive: codes would be informed by the hypothesis of the researchers and the theoretical framework. This chapter introduces thematic analysis (TA), a method that has become a widely-used tool for analysing qualitative data, both in psychology and beyond. Published on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield. Some time last year, they even gave their approach a new name: reflexive thematic analysis. Introduction. A to Z Directory Themes are iteratively developed from the coding. What counts as quality practice in (reflexive) thematic analysis?, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238, (1-25), (2020). I have published a number of book chapters about thematic analysis with Victoria Clarke, Virginia Braun, and Gareth Terry. The widely-used version of TA we outline in this chapter is fairly unique in the canon of qualitative analytic approaches in that it just offers the researcher analytic tools to make sense of data. Let us know in the comment below! Authors Virginia Braun 1 , Victoria Clarke 2 Affiliations 1 School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland Mail Centre 1142, Auckland, New Zealand; [email protected] This is intended as a starting - rather than end - point of reading... We also upload public recorded talks we do, relevant to TA, and have two talks available to viewers | Watch now. According to them, thematic analysis is a method used for identifying, analysing, and reporting patterns (themes) within the data [ (2006, p.79). There are different ways TA can be approached – within our reflexive approach all variations are possible: More inductive, semantic and (critical) realist approaches tend to cluster together; ditto more deductive, latent and constructionist ones. Gareth Terry Nikki Hayfield Victoria Clarke Virginia Braun. We (Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke) feature the resources we've developed (often with Nikki Hayfield and Gareth Terry), but the content goes way beyond those too. | That’s not how we conceptualise themes, but we see that type of theme so much, especially in applied research. These phases should be considered to be undertaken sequentially with each phase building on the one before. Themes express the meanings and representations participants hold, as interpreted by the researcher who is “a storyteller [..] interpreting data through the lens of their own cultural membership and social positionings, their theoretical assumptions and ideological commitments, as well as their scholarly knowledge.” Braun and Clarke suggest it is well indicated for work with a “social justice motivation–be it ‘giving voice’ to a socially marginalized group, or a group rarely allowed to speak or be heard in a particular context, or a more radical agenda of social critique or change.” Braun and Clarke also describe them as abstract (source). In 2006 Braun and Clarke published an article that described to novice researchers how to use thematic analysis in a step-by-step manner. As junior researchers, we found applying thematic analysis both easy (a way to annotate data) and difficult (there are theoretical and methodological ramifications we don’t have a clear grasp on). Qualitative Research in … Thematic analysis Victoria Clarke Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK Correspondence [email protected] & Virginia Braun School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. It is concerned with the identification and analysis of patterns of meaning (themes) and constitutes a widely applicable, cost-effective and flexible tool for exploratory research. Perhaps the most widely used steps for conducting thematic analysis come from an article by Braun and Clarke (2006). Braun V, Clarke V. (Mis)conceptualising themes, thematic analysis, and other problems with Fugard and Potts’ (2015) sample-size tool for thematic analysis. Thematic Analysis (TA) is an accessible, flexible, and increasingly popular method of qualitative data analysis. This six-phase process for thematic analysis is based on the work of Braun and Clarke and their reflexive approach to thematic analysis. Here we draw on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) framework and apply it in a systematic manner to describe and explain the process of analysis within the context of learning and teaching research. The former could be done to develop guidelines for designers and policy makers, while the latter could be useful for writing participatively a position paper challenging current design or methodological approaches to this topic. Themes are hypothesis that are developed using, or checked against, the data. Privacy What is Braun and Clarke’s Reflexive Thematic Analysis and when to use it? They’ve also vigorously opposed that ‘themes emerge from the data’. sciences. Here’s a summary of Braun and Clarke’s concerns regarding uses of their approach to TA and how it applies to HCI research. Welcome to our thematic analysis (TA) resource and information pages. Interpretive phenomenological analysis is another option — note that reflexive TA can be done within a phenomenology theoretical framework, but although we’re no expert, would suggest the type of paper and the write-up differ given IPA approaches rely on few and highly detailed reports of interaction. Thematic analysis is used in many different research fields, but the steps are always the same, and here we build our detailed description of the steps on a famous article, by qualitative researchers in psychology Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke, called “Using thematic analysis in psychology”. In reality, the separation isn’t always that rigid. Braun and Clarke (2006) state that thematic analysis is a foundational method of analysis that needed to be defined and described to solidify its place in qualitative research. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology.

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