Within both the electoral process and the offices held, we see the Athenian’s attempt to develop a constitution that mixes various political elements. Under the ruler of Cyrus, there was a balance of freedom and subjection. His laws not only govern crime and punishment, but also form a code of conduct for all aspects of life in his ideal state - from education, sport and religion to sexual behaviour, marriage and drinking parties. Roughly put, weakness of will is when one intellectually grasps that one should do a certain action, but one’s emotions and desires overrule this judgement, leading to ethical failure. Within the discussion of miscellaneous laws, the Athenian discusses an important office, “the scrutineers” (12.945b-948b). The crux of the argument is that vice leads to emotional extremes, while virtue leads to emotional stability. In Plato: Late dialogues The very lengthy Laws is thought to be Plato’s last composition, since there is generally accepted evidence that it was unrevised at his death. Initially, this poses a problem. In the Republic, the guardians will consider each (appropriately aged) person of the opposite sex to be their spouse. The Athenian explains that the soul is the master of the body and because of this it should be given priority over the body. However, upon the death of Cyrus, disaster ensued. It must grant enough freedom such that citizens are not oppressed and do not resent the leaders, but follow them willingly. Laws should be set to prevent certain actions which harm individuals and their property. This is because no one desires what is bad for them and injustice is bad for one, so no one desires injustice. Of course, Plato does not provide the details of the marriage laws surrounding the working class citizens and for all we know these might have been similar to the ones in Magnesia. His laws not only govern crime and punishment, but also form a code of conduct for all aspects of life in his ideal state from education, sport and religion to sexual behaviour, marriage and drinking parties. Stalley, R. “Persuasion in Plato’s Laws.”, Williams, D. L. “Plato’s Noble Lie: From Kallipolis to Magnesia.”. It is similar in that both dialogues concern the making of a city in speech. Ida, where Minos himself is said to have received instruction on lawgiving from the god. Megillus and Clinias are quite skeptical and ask the Athenian to explain how wine affects the soul. He realizes that in order for this to happen the citizens must see the law as serving their interests and the preludes are meant to accomplish this. Its musings on the ethics of government and law have established it as a classic of political philosophy alongside Plato's more widely read Republic. Clinias states that Apollo is credited as the originator of Crete’s laws, while Zeus is credited as the founder of Sparta’s (624a-625a). 1). Athens represents the extreme democracy and Persia the extreme monarchy. Spartans and Cretans are from the Dorian ethnic group, while Athenians are Ionian. Book 7 and 8 discuss the musical and physical education of the citizens. The Athenian is rejecting the idea that the city and law are unnatural (see 10.888e-890a; Protagoras 320d-322d; Republic 358b-359b). Book 11 and the beginning of 12 discuss various laws, which only have a loose relation to each other. On the face of it, the puppet metaphor raises trouble for both of these commitments. Laws 832e. He explains that drinking parties and drunkenness should be reserved for citizens in mid-to-late adulthood and must be supervised by a wise leader. Defenders of this view maintain that the point of the preludes is to explain to citizens the actual reasons that underlie the law. The general worry is that if the world is governed by a rational, powerful, and good god (or gods), what explains the inclusion of evil in the world? Many scholars have supported this reading by pointing out that Magnesia is said to be the second best city, with the ideal city being one in which women, children and property are held in common (Laws 5.739a-740a). Plato’s Laws Outline of Book I I. Accordingly, the completely vicious who cannot be cured will always be in a state of psychological disharmony and will never flourish. Having taking himself to refute atheism, the Athenian takes on deism and traditional theism. In order to persuade citizens to follow the legal code, every law has a prelude that offers reasons why it is in one’s interest to obey. U. S. A. This cord represents reason or calculation and when one follows it, one is virtuous.
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