petrography of charnockite

By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.05.012, Okunlola OA, Okoroafor RE (2009) Geochemical and petrogenetic features of schistose rocks of the Okemesi fold belt, Southwestern Nigeria. Lecture notes in Earth Sciences 120. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 77–82, Fagbohun BJ, Omitogun AA, Bamisaiye OA, Ayoola FJ (2020) Remote detection and interpretation of structural style of the Zuru Schist Belt, Northwest Nigeria. https://doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v23i2.7, Kretz R (1983) Symbols for rock-forming minerals. West Gondwana: pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic region. Presented here are the results of detailed investigations encompassing externsive structural mapping in the charnockite-high grade gneiss terrain of North Arcot district and the type area in Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu supported by petrography, mineral chemistry, major, minor and REE distribution patterns in various lithounits. Precambrian Res 9:303e310, McLelland JM, Selleck BW, Hamilton MA, Bickford ME (2010) Late- to post-tectonic setting of some major Proterozoic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite. The Neoproterozoic evolution of the Igarra Schist Belt, therefore, involved deposition and infolding of sediments in active continental margin during the early Pan-African followed by upwelling of basaltic magma from the mantle which underplated and crystallized in the lower continental crust and was subsequently partially melted to generate the charnockitic and granitic melts through mantle-crust interaction during the late Pan-African. that, with the availability recent publications related to the . In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. Nature 327:503–506, Frost BR, Barnes CG, Collins WJ, Arculus RJ, Ellis DJ, Frost CD (2001) A geochemical classification for granitic rocks. The protoliths of the TC are interpreted as being derived from partial melting of thickened oceanic-arc crust composed of Archaean mafic composite source rocks (i.e., eclogite and/or garnet amphibolite) with a garnet amphibolite residue. In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. We also appreciate the editorial guidance and the invaluable suggestions of Roberto Braga. Int J Geosci 3:1065–1073. Acta Geochim 38:734–752. J Geol Soc Lond 153:719–728, Ferré EC, Caby R, Peucat JJ, Capdevila R, Monie P (1998) Pan-African, post-collisional, ferro-potassic granite and quartz-monzonite plutons of eastern Nigeria. J Sediment Petrol 58:820–829, Hewitt DA, Wones DR (1984) Experimental phase relations of the micas. 1992, 2004). There is actually an entire array of rocks (mostly granitoids but also syenite, monzonite, etc.) Cambridge University Press, Lyubetskaya T, Korenaga J (2007) Chemical composition of Earth’s primitive mantle and its variance: 1. J Geol Soc India 94:9–22. Data on field, petrography, geoc hemistry and mineralization of these granitoids cumulative ly demonstrate that they are . Arabian Journal of Geosciences Comparative the petrography, geochemistry and geochronology data of Magnesian–charnockite indicate that the ratios of mafic pellites and basalts involved in anatectic melting are different by the upwelling of mantle magma, also resulting in the Eu anormals characteristics. They either represent dry (H 2 O-poor) felsic magmas that are emplaced in the lower crust or granitic intrusions that have been dehydrated during a subsequent granulite facies metamorphic event. Hence, the rarely outcrop of the peraluminous charnockite severely . J Mining Geol 24:101–106, Okonkwo CT, Ganev VY (2012) U-Pb geochronology of the Jebba granitic gneiss and its implications for the Paleoproterozoic evolution of Jebba area, southwestern Nigeria. Elizabethan Publ. Nigeria. Glob J Geol Sci 1(2):1–7, Ekwueme BN (2003b) The Precambrian geology and evolution of the southeastern Nigerian Basement Complex. Geosci Frontiers 3(6):789–800. Charnockite is a granofels that contains orthopyroxene, quartz, and feldspar.Charnockite is frequently described as an orthopyroxene granite. Google Scholar, Ademeso OA (2010) Field and petrographic relationships between the charnockitic and associated granitic rock, Akure area, southwestern Nigeria. The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The charnockites and granites of Okpella show primary magmatic mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. https://doi.org/10.1038/299715a0, Obaje NG (2009) Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Girei MB, Najime T, Ogunleye PO (2019) Geochemical characteristics and origin of the Neoproterozoic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the northern part of Mandara hills, northeastern Nigeria. Methodology . Olatunde Adegbuyi, Felipe Holanda Santos and Oladotun Afolabi Oluwajana are also acknowledged for their comments on the initial drafts of this paper. 2017, 2018) and the Cenozoic, 94. garnet-orthopyroxene tonalit. https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.48.4.729, McLennan SM (1989) Rare earth elements in sedimentary rocks: influence of provenance and sedimentary processes. Precambrian Res 162:180–197, Rajesh HM, Santosh M (2012) Charnockites and charnockites (editorial). Precambrian Res 87:65–74, Dada SS (2006) Proterozoic evolution of Nigeria. Khondalite is quartz–manganese-rich garnet–rhodonite schist. Precambrian Res 311:167–194. The use of these techniques has become very important in the search for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Precambrian Res 21:55–79, Ugwuonah EN, Tsunogae T, Obiora SC (2017) Metamorphic P–T evolution of garnet-staurolite-biotite pelitic schist and amphibolite from Keffi, north-central Nigeria: Geothermobarometry, mineral equilibrium modeling and P-T path. Geological Association of Canada, pp 39–51, Nesbitt HW, Young G (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. The Neoproterozoic charnockite–granite association of Okpella intrudes metasedimentary and migmatite-gneiss complex rocks in the eastern Igarra Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. Australian J Earth Sci 48:489–499, Condie KC (1993) Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: contrasting results from surface samples and shales. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. Chem Geol 104:1–37, Cooray PG (1972) In: Dessauvagie TFJ, Whiteman AJ (eds) A note on the charnockites of Akure–Ado-Ekiti area, Western Nigeria. assessing petrography a nd Mineralogy of rock types fro m vada . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2012.05.009, Nesbitt HW (2003) Petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. PubMed Google Scholar. The granites probably originated from mixed melts derived from lower- to mid-crustal tonalites-trondhjemites-granodiorites and/or subducted metagreywackes and mantle-derived magmas (probably the charnockitic melt and/or its progenitor). J Geol Mining Res 12(2):45–64, Patiño Douce AE (1999) What do experiments tell us about the relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of granitic magma? Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Ocan OO (1990) The petrology of rocks around Idanre area, southwestern Nigeria. They are silicic (> 63 wt% SiO2), metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline, ferroan, post-collisional granitoids. Sometimes the patches and foliations of the host https://doi.org/10.4314/gjgs.v12i1.3, Elueze AA (1988) Geology of the Precambrian Schist Belt in Ilesha area, southwestern Nigeria. The garnet-biotite schist, calc-silicate gneiss and quartzite in the area are low–medium grade metasedimentary rocks. Two sets of conjugate shear system are observed. Rendiconti Soc Italiana Mineralogia Petrologia 43(2):543–554, Hubbard FH, Whitley JE (1978) Rapakivi granite, anorthosite and charnockitic plutonism. Earth Planet Sci Lett 10:29–38, Harlov DE, Van Den Kerkhof A, Johansson L (2012) TheVarberg–Torpa Charnockite–Granite Association, SW Sweden: mineralogy, petrology, and fluid inclusion chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0921:UTEOPM>2.3.CO;2, Ferré EC, Deleris J, Bouchez JL, Lar AU, Peucat JJ (1996) The Pan-African reactivation of Eburnean and Archaean provinces in Nigeria: structural and isotopic data. Inter J Environ Earth Sci 4(11):544–548, Adetunji A, Olarewaju VO, Ocan OO, Ganev VY, Macheva L (2016) Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of the pegmatites in Ede area, southwestern Nigeria: a newly discovered oldest Pan African rock in southwestern Nigeria. Carbonates Evap 32:513–524. Field, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and fluid inclusion evidence indicates that, compared with the H 2 O-rich granite, the magma responsible for the charnockite had a preponderance of CO 2 over H 2 O, which lowered the H 2 O activity in the melt, stabilizing ortho- and clinopyroxene. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 241–256, Rahaman MA, Tubosun IA, Lancellot JR (1991) U-Pb geochronology of potassium syenites from southwestern Nigeria and timing of deformation events during the orogeny. Propose a new classification scheme for charnockites of the Kerala Khondalite belt. Afr Geosci Rev 15(2):145–158, Ekwueme BN (1987) Structural orientations and Precambrian deformational episodes of Uwet area Oban massif, SE Nigeria. J Geophys Res 112:B03211. Petrography and geochemistry studies provide information whether to undertake an in-depth appraisal or not. Inter J Emerging Trends Eng Dev 2(2):35–46, Jimoh OA, Ariffin KS, Hussin HB, Habeeb AA (2016) Characterization and assessment of Okpella metacarbonate deposit in Nigeria. J Afr Earth Sci 6(5):655–664, Yakymchuk C (2019) On granites. Akin Jinad & Co, Ibadan, pp 45–70, Olobaniyi SO (2003) Geochemistry of semi-pelitic schist of Isanlu area, Southwestern Nigeria: implication for the geodynamic evolution of the Egbe–Isanlu schist belt. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Akin Jinad and Co., Ibadan, pp 29–44, Dada SS (2008) Proterozoic evolution of the Nigeria–Borborema Province. In: Bailey SW (ed. Geol Soc Lond 142:319–337, Frost BR, Frost CD (1987) CO2, melts and granulite metamorphism. Inter Geol Rev 59:1861–1884. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1–53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5–128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1–98) ratios. PETROGRAPHY AND MINERAL CHEMISTRY Two major rock-types occur in the studied body. The Neoproterozoic charnockite–granite association of Okpella intrudes metasedimentary and migmatite-gneiss complex rocks in the eastern Igarra Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 45–54, Ajibade AC, Woakes M, Rahaman MA (1987) Proterozoic crustal development in the Pan-African regime of Nigeria. J Earth Syst Sci 125(3):605–622, Shaw DM (1968) A review of K-Rb fractionation trends by covariance analysis. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2013.875489, Gillespie MR, Styles MT (1999) Rock classification scheme volume 1: classification of igneous rocks. Co., Lagos, pp 41–48, Rahaman MA (1988) Recent advances in the study of the Basement Complex of Nigeria. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB004223, Maniar PD, Piccoli PM (1989) Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. Precambrian Res 334:105478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105478, Rahaman MA (1976) Review of the Basement Geology of southwestern Nigeria. Geol Soc Amer Bull 101:635–643, Martignole J (1979) Charnockite genesis and the Proterozoic crust. The petrography of the charnockite section on the west side of the mountain is given in Table 1. Inter Geol Rev 56(4):481–500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.01.015, Ajibade AC, Fitches WR (1988) The Nigerian Precambrian and the Pan-African orogeny. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 32(6):573–601, Sisson TW, Ratajeski K, Hankins WB, Glazner AF (2005) Voluminous granitic magmas from common basaltic sources. Dash © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Contrib Miner Petrol 147:346–362, Rajesh HM (2007) The petrogenetic characterization of intermediate and silicic charnockites in high-grade terrains: a case study from southern India. Petrogenesis of charnockites is related to intra-crustal melting processes. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2020.1753822, Fedo CM, Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1995) Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. The average modal composition is 35% 31% 19% 4% 12% respectively. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1999.168.01.05, Patiño Douce AE (2005) Vapor-absent melting of tonalite at 15–32 kbar. Geocarto Inter:1–21. Granites are felsic rocks that usually contain no or very little pyroxene. Contrib Miner Petrol 88:188–195, Turner DC (1983) Upper Proterozoic schist belts in the Nigerian sector of the Pan-African province of West Africa. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2019.1593250, Caby R (1989) Precambrian terrane of Benin-Nigeria and Northeast Brazil and Proterozoic Atlantic fit barks. Department of Earth Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria, Abimbola Chris Ogunyele, Solomon Omale Obaje, Adedibu Sunny Akingboye, Ayotunde Oluwadamilare Babalola & Abiodun Tobiloba Olufunmilayo, Department of Chemical Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria, Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, You can also search for this author in The rock is porphyritic in texture, with phenocrysts of K-feldspar and plagioclase in matrix of biotite, amphibole and quartz. In: Krӧner A (ed) Proterozoic lithospheric evolution 17. https://doi.org/10.1029/GD017p0259, Archanjo CJ, Viegas LGF, Hollanda MHBM, Souza LC, Liu D (2013) Timing of the HT/LP transpression in the Neoproterozoic Seridó Belt (Borborema Province, Brazil): constraints from U-Pb (SHRIMP) geochronology and implications for the connections between NE Brazil and West Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 9(2):227–234, Dada SS, Tubosun IA, Lancelot JR, Lar AU (1993) Late Archaean U-Pb age for the reactivated basement of northeastern Nigeria. J Mining Geol 3:25–32, Hubbard FH (1988) Basic intrusion, charnockite–rapakivi granite plutonism and crustal depletion, S.W. Geological Association of Canada, pp 184–190, Mendes JC, De Campos CMP (2012) Norite and charnockites from the Venda Nova Pluton, SE Brazil: intensive parameters and some petrogenetic constraints. Geol Rundsch 70(3):897–909, Odeyemi IB (1988) Lithostratigraphy and structural relationships of the Upper Precambrian metasediments in Igarra area, southwestern Nigeria. The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.04.008, Cox R, Lowe DR, Cullers RL (1995) The influence of sediment recycling and basement composition on evolution of mudrock chemistry in the southwestern United States. 95 (Shimura et al. Field study: T he area ranges about 1.5 sq uare kilometres used . Four-stage episodic crustal evolution model is proposed for the Kerala Khondalite belt. In der Petrologie gab es bis in die jüngste Zeit die Auffassung, dass die Charnockite zu den Graniten gehören, also magmatischen Ursprungs sind. e in Niikappu Ri. The granites and charnockites are coeval and were presumably emplaced during the post-collisional stages of the Pan-African Orogeny. Precambrian Res 307:125–136. We also propose a possible alternative process to form charnockite from Grt-Bt gneiss through Composition. Ponnani College, Kerala–679 586, India. The garnet-biotite schist, calc-silicate gneiss and quartzite represent metamorphosed immature to slightly mature sedimentary rocks, probably greywacke, marl and subarkose, respectively, that were sourced from intermediate–acid rocks which underwent low–moderate chemical weathering with minor contribution from recycled sediment sources and deposited in active continental environments. Charnockite and related neosome development in the Eastern Ghats, Orissa, India: petrographic evidence - Volume 75 Issue 3 - Adrian F. Park, B. J Afr Earth Sci 109:131–142. Lithos 200:22–34. In: Pankhurst RJ, Trouw RAJ, Brito Neves BB, De Wit MJ (eds.) minerals like the pyroxenes from the different members of the charnockite group in the elucidation of their petrogenesis. that may contain orthopyroxene plus quartz. African Geology, Ibadan, pp 45–53, Cordani UG, Pimentel MM, Ganade de Araújo CE, Basei MAS, Fuck RA, Girardi VAV (2013) Was there an Ediacaran Clymene Ocean in Central South America? J Min Geol 39:1–9, Oluyide PO (1988) Structural trends in the Nigerian basement. Detailed petrography was carried out using Petrographic Microscopes, both at the Department of Geology, Obafemi Awolowo University and Department of Geology, Rhodes University, South Africa. Geosci Frontiers 3(6):737–744, Roberts MP, Clemens JD (1993) Origin of high-potassium, calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids. v. er area from Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, northern Japan. W e hope. Zircon Hfc model ages of the TC and GC suites constrain the time of this juvenile magmatic crust-forming event as Meso- to Neoarchaean (2.8 to 2.6 Ga). The main minerals are microcline, biotite, plagioclase, whereas green non-pleochloric pyroxene, amphibole (green hornblende) and quartz occur as minor minerals. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the charnockites suggest that the charnockitic melt was derived from mafic lower continental crust through partial melting and assimilation-fractionation processes. ), Micas. The fourth stage of crustal evolution is correlated with the Mesoproterozoic (~ 1.5 Ga) emplacement of megacrystic K-feldspar granites (protoliths to the AC and augen gneisses). J Petrol 46:275–290. In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. Contrib Miner Petrol 148:635–661, Streckeisen AL (1974) How should charnockitic rocks be named? All these magmatic events are fairly well correlated with the major episodes of crustal growth observed in the once contiguous continental fragments (Sri Lanka and Madagascar) and worldwide events (2.7, 1.9, and 1.2 Ga) implying similar episodic nature in the lower crustal evolution of the KKB. J Afr Earth Sci 13(3–4):387–395, Rajesh HM (2004) The igneous charnockite – high-K alkali-calcic I-type granite – incipient charnockite association in Trivandrum Block, southern India. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11631-019-00365-7, Goodenough KM, Lusty PAJ, Roberts NMW, Key RM, Garba A (2014) Post-collisional Pan-African granitoids and rare metal pegmatites in western Nigeria: age, petrogenesis, and the ‘pegmatite conundrum’. The mafic rocks are pyribolite and less common pyriclasite. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-007-0211-y, Rajesh HM (2008) Petrogenesis of two granites from the Nilgiri and Madurai blocks, southwestern India: implications for charnockite–calc-alkaline granite and charnockite–alkali (A-type) granite link in high-grade terrains. The charnockite patches that occur within leptynite host, in and around Jenapore, northern sec- tor of the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, are disposed in a linear fashion and generally have sharp lithological contact with the host leptynite. charnockite from Jiuzhou in South China (Zhao et al. J Petrol 42:2033–2048, Garcia MGM, Santos TJS, Amaral WS (2014) Provenance and tectonic setting of Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks from the Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province (NE Brazil): constraints from geochemistry and detrital zircon ages. Mat Geoenv 66(3):173–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11631-019-00318-0, Ikoro DO, Okereke CO, Agumanu AE, Isreal HO, Ekeocha NE (2012) Geochemistry of the calc-silicate rocks of Igarra, southwestern Nigeria. In: Lentz DR (ed.) A comparative study was performed on the petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of charnockite and granulite in the Xiwulanbulang (XWLBL) area, … In order to unravel the complex processes involved in the formation and tectonic evolution of the Igarra Schist Belt during the Neoproterozoic, detailed field, petrographic and whole-rock geochemical study of the charnockite… Present Adress: Dept. volume 13, Article number: 780 (2020) Petrography and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic charnockite–granite association and metasedimentary rocks around Okpella, southwestern Nigeria / by Abimbola Chris Ogunyele, Solomon Omale Obaje, Adedibu Sunny Akingboye, Adedapo Oluwasanu Adeola, Ayotunde Oluwadamilare Babalola, Abiodun Tobiloba Olufunmilayo Contrib Mineral Petrol 96:181–193, Bute SI, Yang X, Cao J, Liu L, Deng J, Haruna IV, Girei MB, Abubakar U, Akhtar S (2019) Origin and tectonic implications of ferroan alkali-calcic granitoids from the Hawal Massif, East-Eastern Nigeria terrane: clues from geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes.

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